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H

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Hades
The place of the dead (Matt. 16:1320). 2) Greek god of the underworld. Brother of Zeus and Poseidon.

Hallel
A selection comprising Psalms 113-118 and 135-136 chanted during Jewish feasts.

Hallelujiah
Means "Praise the LORD!" This word is made by putting together two Hebrew words: Hallelu (meaning "praise") and Yah (for the name of God "Yahweh," or "the LORD").

Haluk
Outer garment.

Har
Hebrew for hill or mountain.

Hasmonean
Dynasty of Jewish kings belonging to the family also known as the Maccabees.

Hazzan
Synagogue leader or administrator who cared for the facility and how it was used.

Hazor
A major city in northern Israel and one of the key cites on the Via Maris trade route. It was fortified by Solomon.

Hebron
Means "league." Ancient city of Judah at the southern edge of the Hebron Mountains, north of the Negev and approximately 19 miles south of Jerusalem. Abraham lived here and purchased a tomb in this area where he, his wife, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob, and Leah were buried. David's capital for the first seven years of his reign. Herod built a large enlosure around the cave of Machpelah, where Abraham was buried.

Heir
The person who receives or inherits what belongs to a relative. The heir usually inherited these things when the relative died. In the Old Testament, Israel was the heir of God and received the Promised Land as an inheritance from God (Gen. 15). In the New Testament, God's people are also called heirs of God. They receive the gifts of righteousness, eternal life, and the kingdom of God (Rom. 8:1517).

Hellenism
Name for the culture and worldview of the Greeks. It was antithetically opposed to the God-centered worldview of the Jews. Hellenism makes the human being the ultimate reality. The human mind is the basis for truth, the human body is the ultimate in wisdom, and human pleasure is the ultimate goal in life. It is the ancestor of modern humanism.

Hera
Greek goddess of marriage, very jealous wife of Zeus, queen of gods.

Herod the Great
Decreed king of Judea by the Romans in 40 BC. Poorly accepted by the Jews because of his questionable heritage as a descendent of Esau and a native of Idumaea (Edom). Most infamous for trying to kill the infant Jesus by ordering the slaughter of all male babies under two years old in Bethlehem. Remembered for the brutality of his reign

Herodian
Anything pertaining to Herod the Great and the Herodion period; or the political party that dominated Herod Antipas' territory and politically and economically supported Roman overlords.

Heroon
Shrine or temple dedicated to a demigod or deified hero.

Hermes
Greek god of trade, messenger. Son of Zeus and Maia.

Hestia
Greek goddess of the hearth and home. Sister of Zeus

Hezekiah
King of Judah of the 7th and 8th centuries BC (2 Kings 18). When King Hezekiah learned that the dreaded Assyrian army had arrived in Israel, he recognized the threat his exposed water supply posed for Jerusalem's survival. He dug a tunnel through the ridge on which the city was built that brought water to the other side; this water tunnel helped save the city of Jerusalem from the Assyrian siege. To this day, this extraordinary accomplishment ranks as one of the engineering marvels of the ancient world.

Herodion
Fortress built by Herod the Great (c.a. 20 BC) near Bethlehem. It was a fortified palace and is reported to be the place of Herod's burial.

High Palace
Elevated location used in the worship of gods. The God of the Bible also met his people in high places.

Hill of Moreh
Hill at the intersection of the Valley of Jezreel and the Valley of Harod. Gideon and 300 men defeated the Midianites, the desert people (bedouins), here. Also known as Mount Moreh.

Hinnom
Valley to the west of Jerusalem that was at one time the city sewage dump and the place where Judean kings sacrificed their children. This valley, with its filth, rottenness, and burning flesh, came to symbolize hell.

Hippodrome
Greek, hippus (horse) and dramas (course). Referred to a horse racing course or circus. Herod built hippodromes in Caesarea, Jericho, and Jerusalem, where horse races, chariot races, and Olympic-style games were held as part of his attempt to Hellenize Israel.

Holy
Pure, set apart for God. God is holy. He is perfect. He does not do anything wrong. God also wants his people to be holy. One day, God will make them perfect.

Holy of Holies
Inner part of the tabernacle and/or temple where the ark of the covenant was placed. It was a symbol of God's dwelling.

Holy Palace
The Priests' court; a rectangular room between the worship court and the Holy of Holies that contained the table of showbread, golden lampstand, and the altar of incense.

Holy Spirit
One of the three persons of God. In the Old Testament we see the Holy Spirit active in the creation of the world. The Spirit also filled certain people with power at special times, and worked through men to produce the Scriptures. Because Jesus died and rose to new life, the Holy Spirit now lives in all God's people. He is the One who makes them new, teaches them, and gives them freedom for a new life.

Hosha na
Save (hosha) now sense of urgency (na); "save now."

Humanism
Modern worldview based on an evolutionary model that considers human beings the ultimate life form and denies the existence or relevance of God. Right and wrong are determined by human standards, not Gods.

Hyssop
A plant whose twigs were used in ceremonial sprinkling.